JAXA繝医ャ繝励壹シ繧ク縺ク
 JAXA繝医ャ繝励壹シ繧ク縺ク 螳螳吶せ繝繝シ繧キ繝ァ繝ウ繝サ縺阪⊂縺蠎蝣ア繝サ諠蝣ア繧サ繝ウ繧ソ繝シ 繧オ繧、繝医槭ャ繝
 
研究成果報告

各参加研究者の研究成果等を紹介します。

報告1

宇宙飛行から帰還し、各研究室に届けられた試料の状態について検査した結果です。

Culture Bags in EC-1
Strain Assignee Treatment ID Description of the received samples(Volume, number of animals if possible, sharing with other investigators....) Status of the samples; are they as expected (workable or not workable, contaminated or not etc.) Status of the analysis: summary of the treatments received on the samples; preliminary analysis Expected working program; Questions to be solved or answered to help for your discussion of the data
N2 Ishioka Frozen CA 5.0 ml Workable
No contamination
Protein analysis(2DE method) Gene analysis(DNA array)
N2 Ishioka Frozen CA 5.0 ml Workable
No contamination
Protein analysis(2DE method) Gene analysis(DNA array)
Unc-15 Kagawa Frozen CA 2.5 ml not workable as CA
but workable as MA
  Are there any supplements to protect freezing damage?
Ced-1 Higashitani Frozen CA 2.5 ml Workable
No contamination
Cytological analysis of apoptotic cells (DIC microscopy)  
YFP Honda Frozen CA Volume : 2.5ml
Number : about 3000(At the present time, can't say to afford to share)
Workable
No contamination.
Divided into 25 tubes Stored at -80C  
GFP Honda Frozen CA Volume : 2.5ml
Number : about 3000(At the present time, can't say to afford to share)
Workable
No contamination.
Divided into 25 tubes Stored at -80C  
N2 Ishioka Frozen MA2 5.0 ml Workable
No contamination.
Protein analysis(2DE method) Gene analysis(DNA array)
N2 Ishioka Frozen MA2 5.0 ml Workable
No contamination.
Protein analysis(2DE method) Gene analysis(DNA array)
Unc-15 Kagawa Frozen MA2 2.5 ml
Number of animals is not sure, but is small.
workable
not contaminated
Wash with buffer and used for Western analysis and Immunofluorescence microscopy. ; Are there any supplements to protect freezing damage?
Ced-1 Higashitani Frozen MA2 2.5 ml Workable
No contamination
Cytological analysis of apoptotic cells (DIC microscopy)  
YFP Honda Frozen MA2 Volume : 2.5ml
Number : about 3000(At the present time, can't say to afford to share)
Workable
No contamination
Divided into 25 tubes Stored at -80C  
GFP Honda Frozen MA2 Volume : 2.5ml
Number : about 3000(At the present time, can't say to afford to share)
Workable
No contamination
Divided into 25 tubes Stored at -80C  
N2 Ishioka Frozen MA3 5.0 ml Workable
No contamination
Protein analysis(2DE method) Gene analysis(DNA array)
N2 Ishioka Frozen MA3 5.0 ml Workable
No contamination
Protein analysis(2DE method) Gene analysis(DNA array)
Unc-15 Kagawa Frozen MA3 2.5 ml
Number of animals is not sure, but is small.
Workable
No contamination
Wash with buffer and used for Western analysis and Immunofluorescence microscopy. ; Are there any supplements to protect freezing damage?
Ced-1 Higashitani Frozen MA3 2.5 ml Workable
No contamination
Cytological analysis of apoptotic cells (DIC microscopy)  
YFP Honda Frozen MA3 Volume : 2.5 ml
Number : 300, Can't share
Workable
No contamination
Divided into 25 tubes Stored at -80C  
GFP Honda Frozen MA3 Volume : 2.5 ml
Number : 300, Can't share
Workable
No contamination
Divided into 25 tubes Stored at -80C  
CCA samples
Strain Assignee Treatment ID Description of the received samples(Volume, number of animals if possible, sharing with other investigators....) Status of the samples; are they as expected (workable or not workable, contaminated or not etc.) Status of the analysis: summary of the treatments received on the samples; preliminary analysis Expected working program; Questions to be solved or answered to help for your discussion of the data
N2 Kagawa Fixed in Flight + Refrigeration MF2 1.7 ml not contaminatedAnimals are thin, and cells are shrunk. Wash with buffer and used for Nomarski microscopy. ; How about fix condition and concentration of fix solution?
Higashitani 1.7 ml Workable
No contamination
Cytological analysis of apoptotic cells (DIC microscopy) Slower penetration of fix solution? Because lots of harboring eggs were hatched in uterus.
Ishioka 1.7 ml Workable but questionable for immunohistochemical analysis.No contamination    
N2, Kagawa Fixed in Flight + Refrigeration CF2 1.7 ml not contaminatedAnimals are thin, and cells are shrunk. Wash with buffer and used for Nomarski microscopy. How about fix condition and concentration of fix solution?
Higashitani 1.7 ml Workable
No contamination
Cytological analysis of apoptotic cells (DIC microscopy) Slower penetration of fix solution? Because lots of harboring eggs were hatched in uterus.
Ishioka 1.7 ml Workable but questionable for immunohistochemical analysis.No contamination    
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報告2:最終報告

老化を抑える方法の解明につながる発見

凍結された宇宙飛行後の線虫からRNAを抽出し、宇宙における遺伝子の働き方と地上での働き方を分析比較しました。興味深いことに、線虫の筋肉を構成しているミオシンや筋肉線維の収縮に重要な役割を果たすトロポニンなどのタンパク質を合成するための情報を持つ遺伝子の働く量が、宇宙飛行をした線虫では地上で育った線虫と比べて大きく減少していることがわかりました。宇宙飛行士が宇宙に滞在したときに、筋肉が弱くなることは良く知られていますが、線虫においても宇宙飛行でタンパク質の構成が変化することによって筋肉が弱く(脆く)なる可能性があることが示されました。

また、生物が成長する過程では、ウィルスに侵されたり、老化して不要となった細胞が自ら計画的に死んでしまうアポトーシスという現象が見られます。宇宙環境でもこの現象が正常に見られるかどうかを調べてみたところ、宇宙飛行をした線虫においてもアポトーシスが正常に進んでいることが確認できました。

さらに、線虫の老化の指標となるタンパク質であるポリグルタミン凝集体を調べたところ、宇宙では老化が遅くなる可能性があることがわかりました(図3)。これに基づいて宇宙飛行した線虫で働く量が減っている遺伝子を見つけ出して、地上においてそれらの遺伝子を働かなくさせたところ、線虫の寿命が通常よりも長くなることが示されました。

このように、筋肉の萎縮や老化現象など、高齢化社会の問題に対する解決策のヒントがこの実験の解析結果の中に含まれていると考えられます。

関連ページ: 宇宙ステーションに滞在した線虫で老化をコントロールする遺伝子が見つかりました〜線虫国際共同研究(ICE-1st)の成果〜

図1 線虫(Caenorhabditis elegans) 大きさは大人の線虫で1mm程度。

図2 宇宙飛行した線虫が入った容器

図3 宇宙飛行した線虫の老化指標


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報告2:最終報告

現在、作成中

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論文集

[1] Higashitani A, Higashibata A, Sasagawa Y, Sugimoto T, Miyazawa Y, Szewcyk NJ, Viso M, Gasset G, Eche B, Fukui K, Shimazu T, Fujimoto N, Kuriyama K, Ishioka N. Checkpoint and physiological apoptosis in germ cells proceeds normally in spacefl own Caenorhabditis elegans. Apoptosis. 2005 Oct;10(5):949-54.
[2] Higashibata A, Szewczyk NJ, Conley CA, Imamizo-Sato M, Higashitani A, Ishioka N.Decreased expression of myogenic transcription factors and myosin heavy chains in Caenorhabditis elegans muscles developed during spaceflight. J Exp Biol. 2006 Aug;209(Pt 16):3209-18. Erratum in: J Exp Biol. 2006 Sep;209(Pt 18):3695.
[3] Higashibata A, Higashitani A, Adachi R, Kagawa H, Honda S, Honda Y, Higashitani N, Sasagawa Y, Miyazawa Y, Szewczyk NJ, Conley CA, Fujimoto N, Fukui K, Shimazu T, Kuriyama K, Ishioka N. Biochemical and Molecular Biological Analyses of space-fl own nematodes in Japan, the First International Caenorhabditis elegans Experiment (ICE-First). Microgravity Sci Technol. 2007 Sep;19(5-6):159-163.
[4] Adachi R, Takaya R, Higashibata A, Ishioka N, Kagawa H. Spacefl ight results in increase of thick fi lament but not thin filament proteins in the paramyosin mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans. Adv Space Res. 2008;41(5):816-823.
[5] Honda Y, Higashibata A, Matsunaga Y, Yonezawa Y, Kawano T, Higashitani A, Kuriyama K, Shimazu T, Tanaka M, Szewczyk NJ, Ishioka N, Honda S. Genes down-regulated in spacefl ight are involved in the control of longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sci Rep. 2012;2:487. doi: 10.1038/srep00487. Epub 2012 Jul 5.

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JAXA繝医ャ繝励壹シ繧ク縺ク繧オ繧、繝医昴Μ繧キ繝シ