International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a huge manned construction located about 400 km above the Earth. While it circles around the Earth at a speed of 17,700 mph (or 90 minutes per orbit), Earth and star observation, or experiments and research are being conducted. ISS is intended to be utilized for more than 10 years after its completion.

Japasese Experimental Module, "Kibo"

The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), known as "Kibo" (pronounced key-bow) which means hope in Japanese, is Japan's first human-rated space facility and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) first contribution to the International Space Station (ISS) program.

Tsukuba Space Center

JAXA's Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC), located in Tsukuba Science City, opened its doors in 1972. The TKSC, which sits on a 530,000 square-meter site, with beautiful natural surroundings, is a consolidated operations facility with world-class equipment and testing facilities.

Baikonur Cosmodrome

Baikonur Cosmodrome is a Russian space launch facility located in Kazakhstan, managed by the Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos State Corporation).


The Soyuz is a Russian spacecraft. The Soyuz carries people and supplies to and from the space station. The Soyuz can also bring people back to Earth.


Deoxyribonucleic acid. The molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next.

Base Sequence

The sequence of purines and pyrimidines in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.


Ribonucleic acid. One of the two types of nucleic acids found in all cells. The other is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA transmits genetic information from DNA to proteins produced by the cell.


A ribosome is a cellular particle made of RNA and protein that serves as the site for protein synthesis in the cell. The ribosome reads the sequence of the messenger RNA and, using the genetic code, translates the sequence of RNA bases into a sequence of amino acids.


A fundamental physical attribute of a particle, which characterises the particles electromagnetic interaction with other particles and with electric and magnetic fields.


An enzyme is a biological catalyst and is almost always a protein. It speeds up the rate of a specific chemical reaction in the cell. The enzyme is not destroyed during the reaction and is used over and over. A cell contains thousands of different types of enzyme molecules, each specific to a particular chemical reaction.

Organic Solvent

Solvents are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances. Organic solvents are carbon-based solvents.

(Enzymatic) Specificity

Specificity is the ability of an enzyme to choose exact substrate from a group of similar chemical molecules.


A substance capable of initiating or speeding up a chemical reaction.


A piece of a homogeneous solid substance having a natural geometrically regular form with symmetrically arranged plane faces.
(Oxford dictionaries)


An electromagnetic wave of high energy and very short wavelength, which is able to pass through many materials opaque to light.
(Oxford dictionaries)

Photon Factory

The Photon Factory is an accelerator-based light source facility, as a part of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) Japan.


SPring-8 is a large synchrotron radiation facility which delivers the most powerful synchrotron radiation currently available.


The movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
(Oxford Dictionaries)


Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.


An organelle is a subcellular structure that has one or more specific jobs to perform in the cell, much like an organ does in the body. Among the more important cell organelles are the nuclei, which store genetic information; mitochondria, which produce chemical energy; and ribosomes, which assemble proteins.


Mitochondria are membrane-bound cell organelles (mitochondrion, singular) that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Chemical energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own small chromosomes. Generally, mitochondria, and therefore mitochondrial DNA, are inherited only from the mother.


Biochemical changes in the cells, digestive system, and body tissues by which energy is provided, new material is incorporated, and substances, such as drugs, are disposed.

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